Jun02

Brief Chronology of Marines History 1664-2003

Categories // Researching Family and Royal Marine History

1664 – Formation of the Duke of York and Albany's Maritime Regiment of Foot.

1665-72 – 2nd & 3rd DutchWars. Royal Netherlands Marine Corps formed.

1685 – Renamed Prince George of Denmark's Regiment – disbanded 1689

1689-97 –War with France

1702-13 –War of Spanish Succession.Six Regts of Marines formed

1704 – British and Dutch Marines capture Gibraltar.

1713 – Reduced to three Regiments which were transferred to the Line. Only four Companies of Marine Invalids remained

1739 – England declared war on Spain –The War of Jenkins' Ear. Six Marine Regiments raised

1740 – Further four Regiments raised

1745-1750 – Hannah Snell, served in the Marines.

1748 – The Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle. All ten Marine Regiments disbanded

1755 – A permanent Marine Corps of 50 Independent Companies established.Corps Strength 5,0001756 – The Seven Years War.Corps Strength 19,000

1759 – The Capture of Quebec.

1761 – The Capture of Belle Isle.

1770 – Marines land with Captain James Cook at Botany Bay, Australia.

1775 – American War of Independence.The Battle of Bunker Hill. United States Marine Corps formed.

1776 – Corps Strength 25,000

1783 – Stonehouse Barracks first occupied.

1788 – Marines from the First Fleet land in Australia.

1793-1802 – French Revolutionary Wars –Actions in the Mediterranean, South Africa, India, Egypt and the East Indies.

1794 – The Battle of the Glorious First of June off Ushant.1797 – The Battles of Camperdown and Cape St Vincent.

1798 – The Battle of the Nile.

1802 – The Corps honoured with the title 'Royal'.

1803-15 – Napoleonic Wars – Actions in East and West Indies, South America,South Africa and others.

1804 – RM Artillery Companies formed.

1805 – The Battle of Trafalgar.Woolwich Division formed. Corps Strength 31,000

1812-15 – The War of 1812 in America

1814 – The sacking of Washington

1815 – Napoleon exiled to St Helena

1816 – The bombardment of Algiers

1820 – King George IV directed RM would take precedence after 49th Regt.

1827 – Colours presented to each of the Divisions by HRH The Duke of Clarence. 'The Globe' badge granted.Corps Strength 9,000

1835-40 – RM Battalion and RMA Batteryin Spain during the Carlist War.

1839-42 – RM in action in China'sOpium wars.

1848 – Portsmouth Division moved intoForton Barracks, Gosport.

1854-56 – The Crimean War

1854 – Battle of Inkerman – first Royal Marine awarded VC – Cpl Pretty johns.

1855 – Royal Marines designated LightInfantry. Corps Strength 15,500.

1856-60 – 2nd ChinaWar

1857-58 – Indian Mutiny

1861 – Depot established at Deal.

1861-64 – The Maori Wars in New Zealand

1861-62 – RM Battalion in Mexico

1862 – RMA & RMLI became separate Corps

1864 – Eastney Barracks first occupied

1864-65 – RM Battalion in Japan

1867-68 – Expedition to Abyssinia

1868 – RM Battalion in Ireland

1869 –Woolwich Division closed.

1870 – RM Battalion in Japan

1873-74 – The Ashanti War

1879 – The ZuluWar

1880-83 – RM Battalion in Ireland

1882 – The Egyptian Campaign

1884-85 – The Sudan Campaign

1899-1902 – RM with the Naval Brigadein South Africa. Corps Strength 19,000

1900-01 – RM in action during the Boxer Rebellion alongside the USMC (for the first time).

1903 – Royal Naval School of Music formed at Eastney. RM Memorial in the Mall unveiled

1914-18 - First WorldWar. Marines in HM Ships in all major engagements at sea.

1914 – RM Brigade at Ostend and Antwerp.

1915 – RM Brigade with the RN Division in Gallipoli. RMA Howitzer and AA. Bdes& Heavy Siege Train to France and Flanders.

1916 – RM Battalions to France with 63rd(RN) Division. Battle of Jutland. 

1918 – The Raid on Zeebrugge – 4th RM Battalion. Institution of King's Squad & King's Badge. Corps Strength 55,000

1919 – 6th Battalion in North Russia.

1922 – 8th Battalion in Ireland

1923 – 11th Battalion in Turkey. Amalgamation of RMA and RMLI.Forton Barracks, Gosport closed.1927 – 12th Battalion in Shanghai.

1930 – RN School of Music moved to Deal.

1935 – RM carry out London Duties London for the first time. RM inAlexandria with Base Defences,Mediterranean. Corps Strength 9,800

1939-45 – SecondWorld War. Marines in HM Ships in all major engagements at sea.

1940 – RM ashore in Faroe Islands,Iceland, Norway, Holland and France.

1941 – MNBDO1 in the evacuation of Crete. HMS Prince of Wales and Repulse sunk.

1942 – 'Plymouth Argylls' in Singapore.Force VIPER in Burma.First RM Commando formed.40 RM Commando at Dieppe.11th RM Battalion at Tobruk.Op Frankton – Cockleshell Heroes raid on Bordeaux shipping.

1839-42 – RM in action in China's Opium wars.

1848 – Portsmouth Division moved into Forton Barracks, Gosport.

1854-56 – The Crimean War

1854 – Battle of Inkerman – first Royal Marine awarded VC – Cpl Pretty johns.

1855 – Royal Marines designated Light Infantry. Corps Strength 15,500.

1856-60 – 2nd ChinaWar

1857-58 – Indian Mutiny

1861 – Depot established at Deal.

1861-64 – The Maori Wars in NewZealand

1861-62 – RM Battalion in Mexico

1862 – RMA & RMLI became separateCorps

1864 – Eastney Barracks first occupied

1864-65 – RM Battalion in Japan

1867-68 – Expedition to Abyssinia

1868 – RM Battalion in Ireland

1869 –Woolwich Division closed.

1870 – RM Battalion in Japan

1873-74 – The Ashanti War

1879 – The ZuluWar

1880-83 – RM Battalion in Ireland

1882 – The Egyptian Campaign

1884-85 – The Sudan Campaign

1899-1902 – RM with the Naval Brigadein South Africa. Corps Strength 19,000

1900-01 – RM in action during the BoxerRebellion alongside the USMC (for thefirst time).

1903 – Royal Naval School of Musicformed at Eastney. RM Memorial in theMall unveiled

1914-18 - First WorldWar. Marines inHM Ships in all major engagements at sea.

1914 RM Brigade at Ostend and Antwerp.

1915  RM Brigade with the RN Divisionin Gallipoli. RMA Howitzer and AA. Bdes& Heavy Siege Train to France and Flanders.

1916 – RM Battalions to France with 63rd(RN) Division. Battle of Jutland.

1918 – The Raid on Zeebrugge – 4th RM Battalion. Institution of King's Squad & King's Badge. Corps Strength 55,000

1919 – 6th Battalion in North Russia.

1922 – 8th Battalion in Ireland

1923 – 11th Battalion in Turkey.Amalgamation of RMA and RMLI.Forton Barracks, Gosport closed.1927 – 12th Battalion in Shanghai.

1930 – RN School of Music moved to Deal.

1935 – RM carryout London Duties London for the first time. RM in Alexandria with Base Defences,Mediterranean. Corps Strength 9,800

1939-45 – Second WorldWar. Marines inHM Ships in all major engagements at sea.

1940 – RM ashore in Faroe Islands,Iceland, Norway, Holland and France.

1941 – MNBDO1 in the evacuation ofCrete. HMS Prince of Wales and Repulse sunk.

1942 – 'Plymouth Argylls' in Singapore.Force VIPER in Burma.First RM Commando formed.40 RM Commando at Dieppe.11th RM Battalion at Tobruk.Op Frankton – Cockleshell Heroes raid onBordeaux shipping.

1943 – 40 & 41 Commandos land inSicily. 41 Commando landed at Salerno.RM Battalions formed into Commandos.40 & 43 Commandos in action in Italy,Albania and Yugoslavia.

1944 – 43 Commando landed at Anzio. 48Commando formed. 17,500 Marines inThe Landings in Normandyserving in Commandos, HM Ships and Landing Craft. 41,47 & 48 Cdos in the Assault on Walcheren, supported byMarines in HM Ships and landing craft.

1945 – 42 & 44 Commandos in the Battleof Kangaw, Burma.40 & 43 Commandos in the Battle of LakeComacchio, Italy.RM Commandos in the river crossings inNW Europe. Corps Strength 78,500

1946 – Marines from HM Ships occupyPenang. 42 & 44 Commandos occupyHong Kong.

1947 – Reorganisation of the Corps – RMDivisions become functional Groups.

1948 – RM Commandos cover the withdrawalfrom Palestine and deployed in theSuez Canal Zone. RM Forces VolunteerReserve formed.

1949 – 45 Commando in Egyt and Aqaba.3 Commando Brigade moves to HongKong. Closure of Chatham Group.1950 – 3 Commando Brigade moved to Malaya. 41 Independent Commandoformed for operations in Korea. Chatham Barracks closed. RM Divisional Bandsintegrated with the RN School of Music toform the Royal Marines School of Music.

1952 – 3 Commando Brigade moved to Malta. Presentation of first Colours to the RM Commandos. 41 Independent Commando disbanded at Bickleigh.1953 – 3 Commando Brigade moved tothe Suez Canal Zone. HRH The Duke ofEdinburgh appointed Captain GeneralRoyal Marines.

1954 – 40 & 45 Commandos returned toMalta. 42 Commando moves to UK Amphibious School RM moved to Poole 1955-59 – 40 & 45 Commandos alternate operations in Cyprus.  

1956 – 3 Commando Brigade spearheadedlandings at Port Said. First RM detachmentsfor frigates formed. Corps Strength10,000

1957 – Elements of 42 Commando in Northern Ireland. Small Arms School RMat Browndown closed.1958 – RM Gunnery School at Eastney closed

.1960 – HMS Bulwark commissioned as first Commando Ship. 45 Commandomoved to Aden. 42 Commando moved toSingapore. 41 Commando re-formed.Melville Barracks Chatham closed. GreenBerets to be worn by all trained ranks.1961 – 42 & 45 Commandos landed inKuwait. HQ 3 Commando Brigade establishedin Singapore.43 Commando re-formed in Plymouth.

1962 – 40 & 42 Commandos in Brunei.Limbang Operation.

1963-66 – 3 Commando Brigade (less 45Commando) in anti-terrorist Confrontationoperations in Borneo and Malaysia.

1964 – 41 & 45 Commandos in EastAfrica.Corps Tercentenary celebrations.Lovat Dress introduced.1964-1967 – 45 Commando on operationsin the Radfan.

1965 – Earl Mountbatten of Burmaappointed a Colonel Commandant RM1966 – The RMFVR retitled RoyalMarines Reserve. End of IndonesianConfrontation.

1967 – 42 Commando covered the finalwithdrawal from Aden. 45 Commandoreturned to UK. 40 Commando on ISduties in Hong Kong

1968 – 43 Commando disbanded.

1969 – 41 Commando was the first RMCommando on operations in Northern Ireland1970 – 45 Commando assigned to NATOfor the Northern Flank.

1971 – 3 Commando Brigade returned toUK from the Far East. 41 Commandomoved to Malta. 45 Commando moved toArbroath.1972 – Commando Logistic Regimentformed. Warrant rank reintroduced.1973 – PRORM integrated with HMSCenturion

.1974 – 40 & 41 Commandos with UNForces in Cyprus. Corps Strength 7,000

1976 – RM detachments in frigates duringthe CodWar off Iceland.

1977 – Silver Jubilee Inspection by HMThe Queen on Plymouth Hoe. 41Commando (less Salerno Company) leftMalta.

1978 – First 10-man Frigate detachment formed. 41 Commando carried out London Duties.

1979 – Salerno Company left Malta.. 42Commando deployed to Hong Kong for ISduties. Earl Mountbatten assassinated bythe IRA.

1980 – Comacchio Company formed (laterRM Fleet Protection Group)Elements of 42 Commando deployed tothe New Hebrides (Vanuatu).3rd Raiding Squadron deployed to HongKong for duties against illegal immigrants.1981 – HRH Crown Prince Harald (nowHM The King of Norway) appointed Honorary Colonel Royal Marines. 41Commando disbanded at Deal. TheCommandant General, Lt Gen Sir SteuartPringle blown up outside his house by aterrorist car bomb.

1982 – 3 Commando Brigade spearheadedthe recapture of the Falkland Islands. RM Detachment for NP 1002 first deployed toDiego Garcia. 3 Commando Brigade Air Squadron moved to RNAS Yeovilton.1983 – 40 Commando deployed to Cyprus for UN tour of duty. RM Band of FlagOfficer Naval Air Command disbanded.40 Commando moved to Taunton.

1984 – Detachments of 3 CommandoBrigade Air Defence Troop embarked inships of the Armilla Patrol. HM The Queenvisited RM Poole. 539 Assault Squadronformed. All 10-man Frigate detachmentswithdrawn.1985-93 – RM Commandos deployed onoperational tours in Belize.

1986 – 42 Commando carried out London Duties. RM Commando memorial unveiled at Lympstone.1987 – RM Band of Flag Officer 3rdFlotilla (FOF3) disbanded.SBS titled Special Boat Service and cameunder command of Director SpecialForces.

1988 – 3rd Raiding Squadron disbanded in Hong Kong.

1989 – IRA bomb exploded at RMSMDeal killing 11 band ranks.

1990 – RM embarked in HM Ships duringthe Gulf War.

1991 – HQ Commando Forces and 3Commando Brigade (less 42 Commando)deployed to South East Turkey forOperation Haven. Eastney Barracksclosed.

1992 – Alliance with the BarbadosDefence Force.

1994 – 45 Commando deployed to Kuwait.

1995 – Headquarters Royal Marines establishedon Whale Island, Portsmouth.3 Commando Brigade Air Squadron incorporatedinto Naval Air Command as 847Naval Air Sqn. RM provided theCommander and the Operations Staff ofthe Rapid Reaction Force HQ in Bosnia.Commando Logistic Regiment moved toChivenor. 42 Commando and elements ofthe Commando Logistic Regiment onhumanitarian and disaster relief in theWestIndies. DRORM closed.

1996 – Royal Marines School of Musicmoved to Portsmouth.

1996-97 – 42 Commando and a detachmentfrom 539 Squadron in the Congo preparedto evacuate civilians from Kinshasa.1998 – 45 Commando on humanitarianand disaster relief in Honduras and Nicaragua. 40 Commando and a detachmentfrom 539 Squadron in the Congo preparedto evacuate British Nationals

1999 – Ranks of RM officers aligned tothose of the Army.

2000 – 42 Commando deployed to SierraLeone. HQ 3 Commando Brigade, 45Commando, the Commando LogisticRegiment and the RM Band Plymouthdeployed to Kosovo. RM National Memorial in London unveiled. ComacchioGroup renamed Fleet Protection GroupRM

2001 – Fleet Protection Group moved fromArbroath to Faslane. New Colours presentedto 40, 42 and 45 Commandos at Plymouth. Elements of 40 Commandodeployed in HMS Ocean for operations inAfghanistan. 3 Commando Brigade SignalSquadron RM renamed United KingdomLanding Force Command Support Group.RM Poole renamed 1 Assault Group.

2002 – 45 Commando Group deployed onoperations in Afghanistan. HeadquartersUnited Kingdom Amphibious Force establishedwith the Commandant General as the Commander (COMUKAMPHIBFOR).Firefighters' Industrial action, over600 RM ranks involved. Corps Strength6,1002003 – The IraqWar. Op TELIC – 3Commando Brigade operations on the Al Faw peninsula and the liberation of Basra.

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